Die Flughafengesellschaft FBB betreibt den Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg Willy Brandt (BER) mit seinen drei Terminals. Berlin ist der drittgrößte Flughafenstandort in Deutschland; gemessen an den ankommenden und abfliegenden Passagieren (ohne Umsteiger) sogar der größte. Die Flughäfen Schönefeld und Tegel fertigten im Jahr 2019, vor der Coronavirus-Pandemie, rund 35,65 Millionen Passagiere ab. Für das Jahr 2020 rechnet die Flughafengesellschaft mit insgesamt rund neun Millionen Passagieren.
The airport company Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH (FBB) operates Berlin Brandenburg Willy Brandt Airport (BER) with its three terminals. Berlin is the third biggest airport location in Germany and ranks first in terms of origin and destination traffic (not counting connecting passengers). In 2019, before the coronavirus pandemic, the airports in Schönefeld and Tegel handled around 35.65 million passengers. For 2020, the airport company expects a total of around nine million passengers.
→ 46 | Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH Air Quality Monitoring Everything at acceptable levels In 2011, the Airport Company initiated an air quality and environment study programme with BER in mind for the purpose of examining long term the air quality and the environmental impact of air traffic. Air quality measurement point The pollutants typically produced by air traffic — carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone and fine particulate matter — resulting from flight operations, vehicular traffic and background pollution are continuously measured at the air quality measurement point “Schönefeld Airport” located at the eastern end of the future North Runway at BER. These emission measurements are analysed on the basis of threshold values set forth in the 39th Federal Emission Control Act (BIm- SchV). This work is being conducted under the supervision of the State Agency for the Environment of Brandenburg (LfU). The results are updated daily on the Airport Company’s internet site. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (the lead substance of PAHs), hydrocarbons and soot are collected over longer periods and examined by the State Laboratory Berlin-Brandenburg. The carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations at Schönefeld Airport in 2015 were comparable with the suburban monthly mean values determined at the air quality measurement points of the LfU in Blankenfelde- Mahlow. The upper threshold for fine particulate matter PM 10 was exceeded on eleven days of the year. The permissible limit is 35 days. The 8-hour mean value for ozone stipulated by legislation was exceeded 22 times, a value that is also comparable with the air quality measurement point in Blankenfelde-Mahlow (exceeded 21 times) or the background measurement point Hansenholz Buckow (exceeded 22 times). The trigger threshold is 25 times. The threshold values and the trigger thresholds for the 39th BImSchV were not exceeded for any of the measured pollutants at Schönefeld Airport in 2015, although at times increased emissions were determined at the air quality measurement point because of the construction work going on for the renovation of the North Runway. Biomonitoring Biomonitoring focuses on the actual impact of air pollutants on the living environment in the environs of the airport. The biomonitoring procedure will help to answer the question whether — and if so, to what extent — grass as animal feed or kale as food is exposed to pollutants and the degree to which air traffic is responsible.
A grass culture is harvested at the elementary school in Schulzendorf after four weeks for biomonitoring. In the summer of 2015, comparative studies in the extension of the South Runway were the focal point. During the temporary utilisation of the South Runway, studies were undertaken to determine whether the changes in operation had measurable effects on the standardised grass cultures set out at ten locations. The cultures were each harvested after four weeks and analysed in the laboratory. Two measurement points were set up at a sufficient distance from the airport, settlements and streets so that the general pollution levels in the region could be measured (background pollution). The results of the analyses can be evaluated indirectly by comparing them with other recent German examinations and on the basis of evaluation and test values for foods. Biomonitoring is also an aid for determining the risk potential for human beings. The biomonitoring in 2015, just as in the previous years, demonstrated that Schönefeld Airport does not have any relevant impact (emission effects) on raising pollutant levels in the region. The studies are conducted by an independent environmental institute. Bee monitoring Bee monitoring studies whether the operation of an airport has an adverse effect on the quality of the honey produced in the region. As part of the bee monitoring since 2011, pollen, wax and honey from the environs of BER have been analysed for pollutant residues which can find their way through the air into the environment and subsequently into the food chain. Hives themselves as well as collected pollen, wax and honey were examined at three locations: one location on the operational premises of Schönefeld Airport, one location south of the airport that will be directly below flight patterns when BER Airport opens and one location in Schorfheide in a landscape which is largely unaffected by road and air traffic or settlements. Monitoring has begun even before the operational startup of BER so that any possible changes in the residue content can be documented. It will consequently be continued after the operational startup of BER. The results of the residue analysis show that airport operations do not have any impact on the quality of honey as a food product from the airport region. The content of the examined substances in honey, pollen and wax is at safe, low levels. The reports on the biomonitoring and bee monitoring have been made available in their unabridged form on the Neighbourhood Portal of the Airport Company.
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